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Bài gửi  kosovohp on Tue Dec 21, 2010 3:43 pm

The family Pinaceae (pine family), is in the order Pinales, formerly known as the Coniferales, and includes many of the well-known conifers of commercial importance such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces. It is supported as monophyletic by its protein-type sieve cell plastids, pattern of proembryogeny, and lack of bioflavonoid. It is the largest extant conifer family in species diversity, with between 220-250 species (depending on taxonomic opinion) in 11 genera, and the second-largest (after Cupressaceae) in geographical range, found in most of the Northern Hemisphere with the majority of the species in temperate climates but ranging from sub arctic to tropical. The family often forms the dominant component of boreal, coastal and montane forests. One species just crosses the equator in southeast Asia. Major centres of diversity are found in the mountains of southwest China, Mexico, central Japan and California.

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